Links & References headline graphic
The Unimak Area, Alaska:  Winter

Internet Links:

Alaska Volcano Observatory:

Aleut-L, a mailing list maintained by Dr. Veltre at UAA:

Anthropology in Alaska mailing list:

Aleut Corporation (for-profit regional corporation):

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association:

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Community Development Association:

Aleutians East Borough:

Isanotski Corporation (False Pass; for-profit village corporation):

Museum of the Aleutians (Unalaska):

Pauloff Harbor Tribe (non-profit corporation):


Aleuts (Unangan):
Black, Lydia T., (1999) History and Ethnohistory of the Aleutians East Borough, Limestone Press, Fairbanks

Dyson, George (1991) Form and Function of the Baidarka: the Framework of Design, Baidarka Historical Society, Dean Anderson.

Hodge, Frederick Webb (1907) Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, USGPO, Google ebook

Hoffman, Brian W. (1999) "Agayadan Village:  Household Archeology on Unimak Island, Alaska", Journal of Field Archeology, v.26, pp. 147-161.

Jochelson, Waldemar, (1933) History, Ethnology and Anthropology Of The Aleut, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 432 (reprint by: Maschner & Reedy-Maschner, Anthropology of Pacific North America, University of Utah Press, 2002)

Langsdorff, Georg Heinrich (1817) Voyages and travels in various parts of the world: during the years 1803-1807, H. Colburn, Google eBook

Maschner, Herbert D.G. (1999) Prologue to the Prehistory of the Lower Alaska Peninsula. Arctic Anthropology, v.36, n.1-2, pp 84-102

Maschner, Herbert D., (2009), "An Introduction to the Biocomplexity of Sanak Island, Western Gulf of Alaska.", Pacific Science, vol. 63, no. 4, p.682

Petroff, Ivan (1898), Seal and Salmon Fisheries and General Resources of Alaska, USGPO, Google eBook

Petroff, Ivan (1884) Report on the Population, Industries and Resources of Alaska., USGPO, Washington (section on Aleut Customs, translated by Petroff from Veniaminov's "Notes on the islands of the Unalashka District")

Quimby, George I. (1944) Aleutian Islanders; Eskimos of the North Pacific, Chicago Natural History Museum Anthropology Leaflet 35.

Robert-Lamblin, Joell (1980), The Aleut Kayak As Seen By Its Builder And User And The Sea Otter Hunt

Turner, Lucien M. (2008), An Aleutian Ethnography, Raymond L. Hudson, Editor, Univ. of Alaska Press, Fairbanks

Veltre, Douglas W. (1990), "Perspectives on Aleut Culture Change during the Russian Period." , in: Russian America: The Forgotten Frontier. Edited by Barbara Sweetland Smith and Redmond J. Barnett. Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma pp. 175-183.

Veltre, Douglas, W. (1999), "Environmental Perspectives on Historical Period Culture Change among the Aleuts of Southwestern Alaska." Proceedings of the 13th International Abashiri Symposium, Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples, Abashiri, Japan. pp. 1-12.

Veltre, Douglas W. & Smith, Melvin A., (2010) "Historical Overview of Archaeological Research in the Aleut Region of Alaska.", Human Biology, Oct-Dec 2010, v. 82, nos. 5-6, pp. 487-506

Veltre, Douglas W., (1998), "Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations in the Western and Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.", Arctic Antropology, v. 35, no. 1, pp. 223-233/

Veniaminov, Ivan (Ioann) (1984), Notes on the Islands of the Unalashka District, translated by Lydia T. Black & R.H. Geoghegan, Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario

Alaska Climate Research Center:

Alaska Regional Headquarters, National Weather Service:

Hubbard, Bernard R. (1935), Cradle of the Storms, Dodd, Mead & Co.

Pacific Storms Climatology Products at NOAA:

Western Regional Climate Center:

Applegate, Samuel (1890) "Population and Resources at the 11th Census, 1890", USGPO, Google eBook

Baily, Edgar P. (1993), Introduction of Foxes to Alaska Islands - History, Effects on Avifauna, and Eradication, Fish and Wildlife Service, USDI, Resource Publ. 193, Washington, DC

Maschner, Herbert D. (2009) "An Introduction to the Biocomplexity of Sanak Island, Western Gulf of Alaska.", Pacific Science, vol. 63, no. 4, p.682

Shields, Ed, (2001), Salt of the Sea: The Pacific Coast Cod Fishery And The Last Days Of Sail, Pacific Heritage Press.

U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner for year ending June 30, 1895, Washington, GPO, 1896

Applegate, Samuel "Population and Resources at the 11th Census, 1890", USGPO, Google eBook

Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1886), The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of Alaska. 1886, Google eBook

Black, Lydia T., (1999) History and Ethnohistory of the Aleutians East Borough, Limestone Press, Fairbanks

Campbell, Archibald (1819) A voyage round the world: from 1806 to 1812, in which Japan, Kamschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the Sandwich Islands, Broderick and Ritter (Google eBooks)

Cobb, John Nathan (1916) Pacific Cod Fisheries, "History of Alaska Shore Fishing Stations", GPO, (Google eBooks)

Elliott, Henry W. (1886) Our Arctic Province, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, Google eBook

Golder, Frank Alfred (1922) Bering's voyages: an account of the efforts of the Russians to determine the relation of Asia and America, American geographical society

Hooper, C.L., A Report on the Sea-Otter Banks of Alaska, USGPO, Washington, 1897

Hubert, Philip Gengembre (1898) "Making of America Project" The Atlantic Monthly, vol 82 (Google eBook)

Waxell, Sven (1962) The Russian Expedition to America, (Intro. by M.A. Michael), Collier

Flora & Fauna:
Estes, J.A., D.O. Duggins, G.B. Rathbun (1989). The ecology of extinctions in kelp forest communities Conservation Biology 3(3): 252- 264.

Estes, J.A., D. O. Duggins (1995) Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation on a community ecological paradigm" Ecological Monographs 65(1): 75-100.

Estes, J.A. et al, (1998), Ecosystems Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic and Nearshore, Science 282, 473

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer and T.M. Williams, (2009), Declines in Southwest Alaska: a Food-web Perspective, Phil. Transactions Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 1647-1658.

Estes, J. A., Danner, E. M., Doak, D. F., Konar, B., Springer, A. M., Steinberg, P. D., Tinker, M. T. & Williams, T. M. (2004) Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74, 621–638.

Golodoff, Suzi, (2003), Wildflowers of Unalaska Island: A Guide to the Flowering Plants of an Aleutian Island, University of Alaska Press.

Hulten, Eric (1968) Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of the Vascular Plants, Stanford University Press

Jones, Robert D. (1998) "The Life of Robert D. (Bob) Jones, Jr.", Interview conducted by C.M. (Chuck) Mobley, February 7, 1998, Eagle River, AK.  See PDF file on this website under "Animals/Sea Otters" Source: USFWS website: 

Murie, Olaus J. (1959), Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Scammon, Charles M., (1872), Natural history of the cetaceans and other marine mammals of the western coast of North America, J.H. Carmany, San Francisco

Scheffer, Victor B., "Invertebrates & Fishes Collected in the Aleutians, 1936-38" in Murie, Olaus J. (1959), Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Simenstad, Charles A., James A. Estes, Karl W. Kenyon (1978), "Aleuts, Sea Otters, and Alternate Stable-State Communities", Science, vol 200, pgs 403-411

Veltre, D.W., Pendleton, C.L., Schively, S.A., Hay, J.A., and Tararenkova, N., (2006), Aleut/Unangax Ethnobotany: An Annotated Bibliography. For a project on Traditional Use and Conservation of Plants from the Aleutian, Pribilof, and Commander Islands. Aleut International Association, University of Alaska Anchorage, and Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies, in cooperation with CAFF. CAFF Flora Technical Report No. 14, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN No: 9979-9778-0-9

Seismicity, Geology & Landforms:
Alaska Volcano Observatory:

Begét, J.E., Nye, C.J., Schaefer, Janet R., and Stelling, Peter L.  "Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska", Alaska DNR, Div. Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Report of Investigations 2002-4, 2003

Davies, J., L. Sykes, L. House, and K. Jacob (1981), Shumagin Seismic Gap, Alaska Peninsula: History of Great Earthquakes, Tectonic Setting, and Evidence for High Seismic Potential, J. Geophys. Res., 86(B5), 3821–3855, doi:10.1029/JB086iB05p03821.

Fournier, T. J., and J. T. Freymueller (2007), Transition from locked to creeping subduction in the Shumagin region, Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06303, doi:10.1029/2006GL029073.

Graham, Joseph, Newman, William, and Stacy, John, (2008), The geologic time spiral—A path to the past (ver. 1.1): U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 58, poster, 1 sheet. Available online at

National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA):

Riehle, James R., Frederic H. Wilson, Nora Shew & Willis H. White: Chapter 2, "Geology of Unga Island and the northwestern part of Popof Island." in Riehle, James, ed. (1999), Geological and Geophysical Setting of the Gold-Silver Vein Systems of Unga Island, Southwestern Alaska. USGS, Open-File Report OF 99-136, Version 1.3.

Scotch Cap Lighthouse:

Wilson, F. H., Weber, F. R., Dochat, T. M., Miller, T. P., and Detterman, R. L., (1997), Revised geologic map of the Cold Bay and False Pass quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 97-0866, 34 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.


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